Viral Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection During Pregnancy

Viral infections during pregnancy can be a major cause of fetal morbidity and maternal morbidity and also mortality. Infections are known to develop from the vaginal secretions or the blood called as perinatally. They also develop transplacentally and postnatally. In the postnatal stage it develops from the breast milk or from other sources.

Some of the infections can result in a congenital malformation syndrome. The traditional viral infection during pregnancy to watch for was the rubella virus. Other viral infections that are of concern include the CMV and the HSV which is the herpes simplex virus.

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Viral infection in pregnancy can have severe effects on the unborn child and need to attend to accordingly. The hepatitis E virus is also important to watch out for as it has a high mortality rate which has been directly linked with infections that pregnant women get. Viral infection and pregnancy together can be a deadly combination. Studies have indicated that influenza has been linked to high mortality rates in the population. Another pregnancy viral infection to watch out for is the LCMV. This is the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus which has been implicated as the teratogenic rodent-borne arenavirus. In the world at large the HIV infection has also been found to be a major reason for infant morbidity and childhood morbidity. It is known to be mainly responsible for approximately four million deaths. The magnitude of this problem is beyond imagination.

CMV During Pregnancy

The CMV or the Cytomegalovirus is a herpes virus and is a representation of the most common basic congenital viral infection. Some of the factors that have been found to influence the risk related to this infection include socioeconomic class, geographic location and work exposure. This particular infection needs some kind of intimate contact that can be got through urine, saliva, and other bodily fluids. Some of the possible routes to transmit this infection include organ transplantation, sexual contact, transmission through the medium of breast milk, blood transfusion, transplacental transmission etc. The recurrent, primary or reactivation form of CMV infection may occur during pregnancy and can often lead to the congenital CMV infection. The transplacental infection can cause an intrauterine growth restriction, intracranial calcifications, hepatosplenomegaly, sensorineural hearing loss, hydrocephalus, microcephaly, optic atrophy or delayed psychomotor development. The vertical transmission of this infection may occur at any of the stages of pregnancy. Almost 30 percent of the infants who suffer from severe CMV infection ultimately die. Among those that survive, almost more than half ultimately develop microcephaly, mental retardation, neurological sequelae or sensorineural hearing loss

Viral Infection When Pregnant
Viral Infection During Pregnancy
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